Arunachal Pradesh is a State in the farthest north-eastern part of India. It is bordered by the States of Assam and Nagaland to the south and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Mayanmar in South-east, and the People’s Republic of China in the north.
Arunachal Pradesh etymologically means “land of the rising sun” or “land of the dawn-lit mountains”. The total area of Arunachal Pradesh is 83,743 sq. kilometres. Much of Arunachal is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of the State, such as Lohit, Changlang and Tirap, are covered by the Patkai hills. At the lowest elevations, essentially at its border with Assam, there are the Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the State, including Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are covered with broadleaf forests. The Himalayan ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a natural division between India and Mayanmar, while Tirap districts, called Patkai Bum Hills, act as a natural barrier. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalaya close to the Tibetan border have an Alpine or Tundra climate. Below that is the Middle Himalayas with a temperate climate. And at the sub-Himalayan areas, people generally experience a humid and sub-tropical climate.
The early history of Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. Recorded history became available in the Ahom chronicles of the 16th century. Then it came under British rule. In 1913-1914 representatives of China, Tibet, and Britain negotiated a treaty in India. This treaty’s object was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India. Sir Henry McMohan, the British administrator, drew up a map of 550 miles known as McMohan Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet. The Tibetan and British representatives agreed to the line, while the Chinese representatives had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet.
The NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) was created in 1955 and it was renamed on 20 January 1972 and became the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh. On 20 February 1987, Arunachal Pradesh became a full-fledged State of the Republic of India. Now the State has a unicameral legislature of 60 seats, and 2 members in the Parliament. The capital city of Arunachal Pradesh is Itanagar.
The total population of the State is 1,382,611 as per 2011 census. addition, there are a large number of migrants from diverse areas of India and Bangladesh, Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least 30 and possibly as many as 50 distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions. However, the literacy rate in the State is 67% as per census 2011.
Out of the tribals in Arunachal, 47% of people are Animists, 26% Christians, 13% Hindus, 11% Buddhists.
As for transportation, Arunachal Pradesh has two highways—the 336 km National Highway 52 which connects Jonai with Dirk, and another Highway which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh. The State has got its first railway line to Naharalgum in 2013. The State’s five airports are Daporjio Airport, Ziro Airport, Along with Airport, Tezu Airport and Pasighat Airport. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are small, mostly not in operation. Before the State was connected by roads, these airstrips were originally used for the transportation of food supply.