There is no direct evidence of the type of governance that prevailed in the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) cities. Scholars have expressed various views in this regard. Seeing similar houses, roads, weights, and measures across a large area, scholars think that a centralized system of governance was prevalent here.
Dr. S. K. Saraswati said that looking at the organization of Harappan towns, it seems that a centralized administration was prevalent here and it was this administration that controlled the lives of the people.
According to Dr. Kosambi, monarchy or republic — whatever it was, there was a central power here, otherwise, the development of such a developed and planned civic civilization would not have been possible here.
According to many, a republican rule led by merchants was established here. According to Sir Mortimer Wheeler, the Indus region was an empire and a religious system was in place. At its center was a Priest-king. He ruled with the force of Divine right.
According to H.D. Sankhalia, the central government was in the hands of a strong, liberal dictator.